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Aug
05

Diabetes Mellitus

By regst

diabetes - mellitus

DIABETES

Definition as stated by Dr Miriam Stoppard

Types of diabetes

1- Type 1

2- Type 2

Causes

1- Lifestyle

2- Disorders

3- Gestational diabetes

DIABETES MELLITUS

Long term complication

1-Heart problem

2-Eye

Treatment

1-Insulin Prevention

2- Good lifestyle 1-healthy diet

3- Monitoring blood glucose 2-blood pressure measurement

3- healthy lifestyle

Symptoms

1-excessive urination

2- weakness

3- weight loss

Notes from readings

- pancreas either produces insufficient amounts of insulin or body cells become resistant to the hormone’s effects.

- Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

- Although dietary measures are also important, it must be treated with insulin injections. About 60,000 people in the UK have this type of diabetes.

- The pancreas continues to secrete insulin but cells in the body become resistant to its effects.

- Diabetes mainly affects people over the age of 40 and is more common in overweight people.

- Condition may be treated with dietary measures only.

- Diabetes mellitus can sometimes develop during pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes and is usually treated with insulin to maintain the health of the mother and baby.

- Type 1 diabetes is usually caused by an abnormal reaction in which the immune system destroys insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas.

- Type 2 diabetes are less well understood, but the genetics and obesity are important factors.

- The symptoms of type 2 may not be obvious or may go unnoticed until a routine medical check-up. The main symptoms of both forms may include:

- Excessive urination

- Thirst and a dry mouth

- Insufficient sleep because of the need to urinate at night.

- Lack of energy

- Blurry vision

- Weight loss

Symptoms of type 2 may go unnoticed until routine medical check up.

The main symptoms of both forms may include:

- excessive urination

- thirst and a dry mouth

- insufficient sleep because of the need to urinate at night.

- Lack of energy

- Blurry vision

- Weight loss

The main symptoms of ketoacidosis include:

- nausea and vomiting, sometimes with abdominal pain.

- Deep breathing.

- Acetone smell to the breath (like pear drops or nail polish remover)

- Confusion.

Living with diabetes:

- A healthy diet

- Drinking and smoking

- Special care for your feet.

- Exercise and sports.

- Strenuous exercise

- Moderate exercise

- Medical check up

- Eye examination

- Blood pressure measurement.

Treatment for:

Type 1

Insulin can be injected into any fatty area, such as upper arm.

Source: Dr Miriam Stoppard , Doling Kindersley Ltd 2002 ‘Family Health Guide’, pages 504 to 507.

“Department of Diabetes, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to:

P Home. Department of Diabetes, The Medical School, University of Newcastle

upon Tyne, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

philip.home@newcastle.ac.uk

Received: ; revised: December 10, 2002

Diabetes Metab 2003,29,101-9 • © 2003 Masson, all rights reserved 101”

- Diabetes is a growing healthcare challenge worldwide.

-A considerable proportion

of people either have impaired glucose tolerance with a significant

risk of development of diabetes, or have undiagnosed Type 2

diabetes.

-Pivotal to reducing the risk of morbidity and the development

of complications and mortality is the normalisation of both fasting

and postprandial blood glucose levels.

-diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions

worldwide, with between 5 and 10% of the world population

affected.

- People with diabetes have approximately twice

the prevalence of hypertension compared with non-diabetic

patients

-40% of subjects were defined as hypertensive on entry

(receiving antihypertensive treatment or with a mean systolic

blood pressure ? 160 mmHg and/or a mean diastolic blood

pressure ? 90 mmHg)

-People with diabetes are 17 times more prone to kidney disease,

with diabetic nephropathy being the most common

complication [11]. Diabetic nephropathy may eventually

lead to end-stage renal disease and thus significant mortality.

-Approximately 30-40% of people with diabetes develop

retinopathy, and diabetes is the most common cause of blindness

in the working years of life in developed countries

-According to a 1997 estimate [12], 120 million people

have Type 2 diabetes (approximately 2% of the world population)

and an additional 4 million have Type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 85% of all cases of

diabetes in developed countries and almost all cases in developing

countries. It appears to be epidemic (affecting a high

and increasing proportion of the population) in many parts

of the world, and represents a serious and growing global

health challenge primarily as a result of increased obesity,

ageing populations, increasing urbanisation and a more sedentary

lifestyle [34, 35]. However, data from many parts of

the world with high and increasing prevalence (Asia, Latin

America, China) are not broadly based, and so this estimate

is likely to be markedly low.

-Type 1 diabetes

is one of the most common childhood diseases in developed

European countries and the incidence has increased dramatically

in some newly prosperous countries

-The incidence of Type 2 diabetes in particular is expected

to increase considerably as developing countries become

more Westernised in terms of availability of healthcare and

modernisation of existing resources, as well as a result of

substantial improvements in diabetes surveillance and

screening. Growth is projected to be greatest in Asia and

Africa, where diabetes could become 2-3 times more common

than it is today [12]. By 2025, more than 75% of people

with diabetes will be from developing countries, compared

with 62% in 1995

-Type 2 diabetes suggests a need for continuing

attention to control of blood glucose, blood pressure

and blood lipids through medication, diet and exercise.

People with Type 1 diabetes, and increasingly those with

Type 2 diabetes, have the additional burden of subcutaneous

insulin injections, self-monitoring and care of their insulin

supplies and equipment.

Direct Quote

Dr Miriam’s definition of diabetes is:

“the inability of the body to use glucose for energy due to inadequate amounts of or loss of sensitivity to, the hormone insulin.”

Dr Miriam Stoppard. 2002, Family Health Guide, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, England, Page 504

Paraphrase

The body uses glucose as energy in order to perform work and if it fails because of insufficient amount of insulin (which is essential for the absorption of glucose) or because the body cells become more resistant to the hormone’s effect then we end up with the non-healthy state called diabetes.

Summary

Dr Stoppard states that “Glucose from the blood stream is the main source of energy for the body’s cells. Its absorption is enabled by the pancreas, which produces insulin. Among people suffering from diabetes mellitus, a build up of toxic by- products, like acetone with a pear drop smell, in the body occurs. This is caused by the use of other sources of energy than glucose. Hence the unused glucose accumulates in the blood and urine, causing high blood sugar levels. 1 in 10 diabetes depends on self administered injections of insulin and the rest take oral drug and are careful about their diet. These treatments are vital in preventing the symptoms of high blood sugar level like frequent passing of urine, thirst and loss of weight as well as complications leading to peripheral nerve disorders which may affect the eyes, kidneys, the cardiovascular system. The weakening of the immune system may also cause infections like cystitis.”

Dr Miriam Stoppard. 2002, Family Health Guide, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, England, Page 504

Plan

1- Introduction

a- Definition

b- Types of diabetes

c- Brief description of each diabetes

2- Causes

a- Causes of Type 1 diabetes more frequent in children

b- Causes of Type 2 diabetes more frequent in adults

3- Symptoms

a- Both short term and long term consequences in case of non treatment for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

4- Treatment

a- The use of insulin to control diabetes in both Type 1 and Type 2

5- Short Term and Long Term complications.

a- Short term and long term effect in Type 1 diabetes

b- Short term and long term effect in Type 2 diabetes

6- Conclusion

a-healthy diet

b- healthy lifestyle

7- Bibliography

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus is developing in epidemic proportions in today’s world with 5 to 10% of the worldwide population affected. This disease is defined by Dr Stoppard, “as the inability of the body to use glucose for energy due to inadequate amounts of or loss of sensitivity to, the hormone insulin”. Which means that the body uses glucose in order to perform work and if it fails because of insufficient amount of insulin or because the body cells become more resistant to the hormone’s effect then we end up with the non-healthy state called diabetes.

There are two types of diabetes:

1- Type 1 which is caused by the abnormal reaction in which the immune system destroys insulin secreting cells in the pancreas. It is more common in childhood.

2- Type 2 which causes are less understood. However, genetics and overweight are important factors.

Causes

Diabetes of Type 1 is usually caused by some viral diseases which affect the immune system of the child, though the genetic factor of one parent suffering from type 1 diabetes may have some effect, however most children who develop type 1 diabetes do not have parents with diabetes. As for Type 2 diabetes it is the increase in food intake which leads to overweight and obesity as well as the living of a sedentary lifestyle and it mostly affects adults.

Symptoms

Both types of diabetes have the same symptoms where there is excessive urination which account for the thirst and dry mouth but also for the insufficient sleep at night because of the need to go to the toilet. This state is paralleled by the lack of energy; blur vision and quick weight loss, abdominal pain, deep breathing and acetone smell breath may also consist of symptoms of diabetes.

Treatment

While the Type 1 diabetes have to submit themselves to the burden of insulin injection, self monitoring and the care of their insulin supplies and equipments, though the Type 2 diabetes have the need to control their blood glucose, their blood pressure and their blood lipids these may be done through medication, diet and exercise but sometimes in addition the Type 2 diabetes have to make insulin injections as the Type 1’s diabetes with all the inconvenience attached to it. As for treatment by insulin Dr Stoppard states that “Glucose from the blood stream is the main source of energy for the body’s cells. Its absorption is enabled by the pancreas, which produces insulin. Among people suffering from diabetes mellitus, a build up of toxic by-products, like acetone with a pear drop smell, in the body occurs. This is caused by the use of other sources of energy than glucose. Hence the unused glucose accumulates in the blood and urine, causing high blood sugar levels. 1 in 10 diabetes depends on self administered injections of insulin and the rest take oral drug and are careful about their diet. These treatments are vital in preventing the symptoms of high blood sugar level like frequent passing of urine, thirst and loss of weight as well as complications leading to peripheral nerve disorders which may affect the eyes, kidneys, the cardiovascular system. The weakening of the immune system may also cause infections like cystitis.”

Hence, no complete cure of diabetes exist, for it is a chronic disease but it can be controlled so as not to cause more severe damage to the body which is affected by it. For that a healthy diet with special attention to avoid excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages and smoking. Special care should also be taken with the feet and the eyes. Medical check up as well as blood pressure measurement should be regular. While sports should be practiced excessive strenuous exercise should be avoided.

Short Term and Long Term effect

If left unattended the diabetes mellitus may give rise to both short-term and long term complications. In case of Type 1 neglect of treatment may lead to nausea and vomiting accompanied by abdominal pain and deep breathing, while an acetone smell breath is noted. If left untreated the subject quickly enter in a confusion state where dehydration may lead to coma and death. As for the Type 2 diabetes if left untreated as is often the cause long term diseases like cardiovascular diseases occurs which may end up in a stroke. These are consequences of high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol in the blood. There is an increase risk of cataracts in the eyes and symptoms of dizziness upon standing and poor circulation because of nerve damage may lead to ulcers and gangrene.

Conclusion

In conclusion it can be said that the Diabetes mellitus is a disease that compel the one suffering from it to adopt a healthier lifestyle so as to control the devastation that the disease may cause to the body and to avoid the shortening of one’s life.

(810 words)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1- http://www.e2med.com/dm

“Department of Diabetes, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to:

P Home. Department of Diabetes, The Medical School, University of Newcastle

upon Tyne, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

philip.home@newcastle.ac.uk

Received: ; revised: December 10, 2002

Diabetes Metab 2003,29,101-9 • © 2003 Masson, all rights reserved 101”

2- Dr Miriam Stoppard, 2002, Family Health Guide, Doling Kindersley Ltd, England

Watch the video related to diabetes

Animation

Help answer the question about diabetes

Can low blood sugar lead to diabetes? Or can the symptoms be confused with one another?
I have low blood sugar but recently I looked up symptoms of diabetes and I have:
Blurry Vision
Fatigue
Irritation
Increase hunger
—-
Even if I don’t have diabetes, how does it explain my blurry vision? Can low blood sugar lead to diabetes?

About Author

Mother of two.

Popularity: 2% [?]

Categories : Diabetes-News

18 Comments

1

debe ser en castellanotambien…

2

First of all, that's a lot of questions to answer in the small space provided here, but I will try to give you some starting points.

Talking with your doctor is your best place to begin. He / she can steer you in the right direction toward meeting your health goals.

As for food…. consult with a registered dietician or nutritionist for professional advice. Some basic pointers are:
– Avoid high-sugar content foods.Trade out regular soft drinks for more healthy options such as water, tea (not sweetened with sugar), or diet soft drinks.
– Avoid high-carb foods. Carbs are often metabolized as glucose and will cause your blood sugar to rise in much the same fashion as sugary foods. Potatoes, pastas, and breads are among high-carb foods.
– Avoid high-fat foods, in order to reduce cholesterol. Plan out low-fat meals and avoid frying when possible. Cholesterol and diabetes go hand in hand, so reducing one (also reducing your triglycerides) will have a positive effect on the other.
– Avoid high-sodium foods. Try to watch your salt intake as much as possible. Sodium is a cause of high blood pressure, which is also a sister-syndrome of diabetes.
– Avoid alcoholic beverages. Limit your alcohol intake to the minimal. While most alcoholic mixed drinks are high in sugar content (in the mixers) and beers are high in carbs, alcohol can actually cause hypoglycemic reactions.

When it comes to diabetic meal planning, portion control is really the main key. Limit your portion sizes and avoid over-indulging. Some sugar, carbs, fats, and salt are actually okay and are impossible to avoid, but avoid excess.

There is no set time interval at which you should eat, however it is recommended that you eat small snacks (healthy, of course) throughout the day and 3 meals a day. Being on a regular meal schedule has a major effect on your blood sugar levels so try to eat around the same time everyday.
************************
Unfortunately, there is no cure for diabetes, but with proper medical control you can definitely lead a healthy and happy life. Control is the key to taming the disease. Take medication as prescribed, eat the right diet, and exercise regularly.

There are great resources around in nearly every community so take advantage of those. Join a diabetic support group in your area or solicit the services of a Certified Diabetes Educator near you. Your local health department is likely a great resource as well when it comes to diabetes.

Good luck and best wishes…

3

I found out that every 5 seconds in the U.S. someone gets diabetes. It is an epidemic in this country.

5

Diabetes can effect the eyes and can lead to many eye complications
for more on eye diseases due to diabetes vsit mt free website http://www.reddiabetes.com

Automated lamellar keratoplasty eye surgery, or ALK, is a surgical procedure used to correct vision in people with severe nearsightedness and mild degrees of farsightedness.

What Happens During Keratoplasty Eye Surgery?
Keratoplasty eye surgery, performed under local anesthesia, usually takes less than an hour to complete. A cutting device is used to make a small incomplete flap across the cornea. While still attached at one side, the corneal flap is folded back to reveal the layer of tissue below. Another, very precise cut is made on the sub layer of tissue based on the person's glasses' prescription. After this cut, the corneal flap is placed back over the eye where it reattaches.

What Are the Advantages of Keratoplasty Eye Surgery?
Compared to other vision repair surgeries:

The healing process for keratoplasty eye surgery is relatively quick
It takes less time for stable vision to return
Recovery period is more comfortable

What Are the Disadvantages of Keratoplasty Eye Surgery?
While keratoplasty eye surgery is a safe and effective surgery, it does have its disadvantages. They include:

For people with mild to moderate nearsightedness, keratoplasty eye surgery is not as accurate as other eye procedures, meaning that its outcome is more difficult to predict.
Keratoplasty eye surgery slightly increases a person's risk of developing an irregular astigmatism.

What Are the Potential Side Effects of Keratoplasty Eye Surgery?
Aside from the above-mentioned disadvantages, side effects, though rare, do occur. These may include:

Glare
Inability to wear contacts, sometimes permanently
Infection
Corneal scarring

How Should I Prepare for Keratoplasty Eye Surgery?
Before your keratoplasty eye surgery you will have met with a coordinator who will discuss with you what you should expect during and after the surgery. During this session your medical history will be evaluated and your eyes will be tested. Likely tests will include measuring corneal thickness, refraction, and pupil dilation. Once you have gone through your evaluation, you will meet the surgeon, who will answer any further questions you may have. Afterwards, you can schedule an appointment for the keratoplasty eye surgery.

If you wear rigid gas permeable contact lenses, you should not wear them during the three weeks before keratoplasty eye surgery. Other types of contact lenses shouldn't be worn for at least three days prior to keratoplasty eye surgery. Be sure to bring your glasses to the surgery so your prescription can be reviewed.

On the day of your keratoplasty eye surgery, eat a light meal before going to the doctor and take all of your prescribed medications. Do not wear eye makeup or have any bulky accessories in your hair that will interfere with positioning your head under the laser. If you do not feel well that morning, call the doctor's office to determine whether the keratoplasty eye surgery needs to be postponed.

What Should I Expect After Keratoplasty Eye Surgery?
The healing time from keratoplasty eye surgery is very rapid. It usually takes only about 24 hours to mend. But it may take a few weeks for your vision to finally stabilize.

Your doctor will give you eye drops to control inflammation, discomfort, and prevent infection.

6

1. obesity
2. Hyperglycemia
3. Polydipsia
4. ANother guess
5. a wrong guess

7

BklynJayL:
You get diabetes by eating a lot of refined sugars and white breads, animal products, and fat. And for not eating enough fruits, vegetables and legumes.
Examples of foods to avoid: hamburguers, pancakes, cakes, icecream, soda, hot-dogs (incidentally the most common food in America and occidental countries)
Best regards

8

That would be very difficult to answer accurately as the main cause of high blood pressure is the same as the main cause of type two diabetes…. Poor diet/lack of exercise. So, how can you separate the lifestyle effects from the drug effects?

9

Actually, Alex Chiu’s Immortality Rings cure diabetes. There are lots of testimonial on Alex Chiu’s website. People reported diabetes type 1 or 2 cured within a week.

10

actually, thats not completely true. you should research it more.

11

those transporters are called glut-4 and glut-2 transporters. glut 2 is in the liver

12

I believe it is E.
Insulin, which is secreted by the Pancreas, helps to control the amount of sugar in the bloodstream. When the Pancreas does not secrete enough Insulin or none at all, the sugar remains in the blood. Then the body tries to flush out all of the sugar by drinking and urinating- two key symptoms of diabetes.

13

Ok. Thanks for that ans. bro.. Is that a website whereas, I can find out a lot about certain things?

14

let me repost something,

“First you don’t catch diabetes – Its heredetary. Second you dont get diabetes from eating to much sugar. Third you don’t get type one diabetes from being overweight , Please please go to the american diabetes associations’ webpage to get more info. There are mainly 2 type of diabetes with different causes and different treatments but one symptom namely high bloodsugar”

15

Wow! All of the food I love! Thanks for that answer bro.. Appreciate it! Looks like, I’m gonna have to make a few changes.

Thanks. ;-)

16

I am assuming that she has Type II diabetes and not Type I. Type 1 always requires insulin to treat and there is no cure except the possible successful pancreas transplant.

Type II is usually characterized by obesity. Treatment includes diet, excercise, pills and in some cases, insulin. I have heard that for some people the diabetes "goes away" if they lost weight. There is a recent study where if a diabetic undergoes gastric bypass surgery that the diabetes disappears before the ultimate weight loss. It is a very new study and here is a link to the article on Yahoo…….

http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/player/popup/?cl=7492540

No one likes to medicate themselves, but diabetes can be controlled with medication so a person can lead a long and healthy life. Diabetes has many complications, some of which can be life threatening. So if given a choice, I'd rather take the medication than face possible death.

17

I don't think we signed up for a medical exam. Is this just a quiz?

18

First of all, Type 1 diabetics only give subcutaneous injections of insulin, not intramuscular. If insulin was injected into muscle, the effect would be dangerously rapid and unpredictable absorption.

Type 1 diabetics also have damage to their alpha cells or impaired alpha cells, which release glucagon. So yes, their counter-regulatory mechanism for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is impaired. They do not produce (generally) enough glucogon to prevent a severe low blood sugar. Type 1 diabetics, unlike Type 2's, are prone to severe low blood sugar for this reason, as is the fact that they do not have insulin resistance, and the fact that they are exogenously injecting much more insulin than their body would need to sustain itself, in addition to general factors for hypoglycemia.

Nobody knows if the damage or dysfunction of the glucagon secreting cells (alpha cells) is autoimmune also, or if it is a result of a lack of beta cells (i.e. The cells may figure, if the body is not making any insulin, you can't have a low blood sugar, right?).

If the person with Type 1 diabetes is conscious and having a low blood sugar, then glucagon should NOT be given. Fast acting carbohydrate (glucose gel etc.) should be given by mouth.

If the person is unconscious, a glucagon injection or IV glucose MUST be given instead.

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